The term “periodontitis” is derived from the Latin word “periodontium,” which means “around (peri) the tooth (odont).” The periodontium is comprised of all the components that secure the tooth in the jawbone: the gum (gingiva), the bone, and the cementum – the anchoring structure on the root surface. The periodontium completely encircles the root.
What is Periodontitis?
Periodontitis is a severe gum disease that results in severe gum infection and soft tissue destruction. Periodontitis affects approximately 40% of the population. Periodontitis is thought to be responsible for over 70% of tooth loss in adults. Periodontitis, if left untreated, can cause the bone that supports your teeth to deteriorate. Periodontitis can result in tooth loss or tooth loosening. Additionally, it can result in additional health complications.
Although periodontitis is exceedingly common, it can be largely avoided with early detection of gum disease. It is frequently caused by inadequate dental hygiene. Brushing at least twice a day, flossing daily, and seeing a dentist on a regular basis can significantly increase your odds of successfully treating periodontitis and also decrease your risk of developing it.
Periodontitis can then result in difficulties speaking and chewing, as well as aesthetic harm to your smile.
What are the stages of gum diseases?
Have you noticed blood in the sink after brushing each morning? Or did you notice the blood on the Apple bite? Bleeding can be one of the early symptoms of gum disease. As discussed previously, gingivitis is a minor form of the disease in which just the gums are afflicted. If left untreated, the infection will spread below the gum line and into the bone, resulting in periodontitis, a more serious form of gum disease.
Both of these oral health problems – gingivitis and periodontitis – have been linked to a variety of other health problems, including diabetes, heart disease, osteoporosis, pneumonia, and cancer.
Gum disease does not progress in an overnight fashion. It occurs in two stages.
How the Periodontal pocket is formed?
Dental plaque, or germs, accumulates on the tooth and throughout the mouth. These bacteria thrive and reproduce by consuming food particles and saliva. The gums then bleed and swell, a condition known as gingivitis.
To eliminate the germs, the body generates chemicals that target the bacteria, causing damage to or destruction of the bone and ligaments that keep the teeth in place. This results in the tooth becoming loose and producing a pocket. These pockets become deeper over time, allowing more area for germs to live. These deep pockets cause significant bone and tissue loss, eventually necessitating tooth extraction.
A pocket depth of between 1mm and 3mm implies gingivitis, a mild form of gum disease. A periodontal infection depth of 4mm-5mm suggests mild periodontitis, a periodontitis infection depth of 6mm-7mm shows moderate periodontitis, and a periodontitis infection depth of 8mm or above indicates severe periodontitis infection, which carries a higher risk of irreversible damage.
What are the symptoms associated with Periodontitis?
Gum bleeding is one of the first indicators. The gums may appear red and swollen, and a discoloured film of bacterial plaque may form on the teeth. If not removed properly through brushing and flossing, plaque will harden into calculus or tartar, which cannot be removed with a toothbrush and requires the assistance of a dentist.
The following are some obvious indications and symptoms of periodontitis development:
- Gums that bleed as a result of brushing or biting chewy, hard food
- Breath that is foul
- Changes in the teeth’s location in the jaws.
- Receding gums — Where teeth appear to be growing longer Constant, intolerable discomfort
- Sensitivity of the teeth
Causes of Periodontal Disease
Periodontitis begins with the accumulation of plaque and tartar. Our mouth is home to more than 700 different bacteria, the majority of which are harmless. However, if we do not properly clean our teeth, bacterial deposits grow adjacent to the gums, forming a “plaque” — creating ideal circumstances for more hazardous bacteria to flourish. When this occurs, the body’s natural defences are also impaired. Plaque builds on your teeth as a result of the interaction of starches and sugars in food with bacteria naturally occurring in your mouth. When plaque solidifies behind the gum line, it forms tartar, which is bacteria-filled, and the longer plaque and tartar sit on your teeth, the more harm they can do.
Additionally, chronic inflammation of the gums might result in periodontitis.
Treatment For Periodontitis or Periodontal Disease
Surgical and non-surgical treatments are classified. Scaling and root planing are the most common non-surgical treatments for periodontal disease (SRP).
Scaling eliminates tartar and bacteria from tooth surfaces and below the gum line. It may be carried out with the assistance of instruments, a laser, or an ultrasonic device. Root planing levels the root surfaces, prevents future tartar and bacteria formation, and eliminates bacterial byproducts known to cause inflammation and poor healing.
In terms of surgical technique, there is the option of performing flap surgery in the traditional manner (pocket reduction surgery). This procedure involves the periodontist making small incisions in the gum to lift a portion of gum tissue back, exposing the roots for more efficient scaling and root planing. Due to the fact that periodontitis frequently results in bone loss, the underlying bone may be recontoured prior to suturing the gum tissue back in place.